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List of HTTP headers

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Requests

Field name↓ Description Example
Accept Content-Types that are acceptable Accept: text/plain
Accept-Charset Character sets that are acceptable Accept-Charset: utf-8
Accept-Encoding Acceptable encodings. See HTTP compression. Accept-Encoding: <compress | gzip |deflate | sdch | identity>
Accept-Language Acceptable languages for response Accept-Language: en-US
Authorization Authentication credentials for HTTP authentication Authorization: Basic QWxhZGRpbjpvcGVuIHNlc2FtZQ==
Cache-Control Used to specify directives that MUST be obeyed by all caching mechanisms along the request/response chain Cache-Control: no-cache
Connection What type of connection the user-agent would prefer Connection: close
Cookie an HTTP cookie previously sent by the server with Set-Cookie (below) Cookie: $Version=1; Skin=new;
Content-Length The length of the request body in octets (8-bit bytes) Content-Length: 348
Content-MD5 Base64-encoded binary MD5 sum of the content of the request body Content-MD5: Q2hlY2sgSW50ZWdyaXR5IQ==
Content-Type The mime type of the body of the request (used with POST and PUT requests) Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded
Date The date and time that the message was sent Date: Tue, 15 Nov 1994 08:12:31 GMT
Expect Indicates that particular server behaviors are required by the client Expect: 100-continue
From The email address of the user making the request From: user@example.com
Host The domain name of the server (for virtual hosting), mandatory since HTTP/1.1 Host: en.wikipedia.org
If-Match Only perform the action if the client supplied entity matches the same entity on the server. This is mainly for methods like PUT to only update a resource if it has not been modified since the user last updated it. If-Match: "737060cd8c284d8af7ad3082f209582d"
If-Modified-Since Allows a 304 Not Modified to be returned if content is unchanged If-Modified-Since: Sat, 29 Oct 1994 19:43:31 GMT
If-None-Match Allows a 304 Not Modified to be returned if content is unchanged, see HTTP ETag If-None-Match: "737060cd8c284d8af7ad3082f209582d"
If-Range If the entity is unchanged, send me the part(s) that I am missing; otherwise, send me the entire new entity If-Range: "737060cd8c284d8af7ad3082f209582d"
If-Unmodified-Since Only send the response if the entity has not been modified since a specific time. If-Unmodified-Since: Sat, 29 Oct 1994 19:43:31 GMT
Max-Forwards Limit the number of times the message can be forwarded through proxies or gateways. Max-Forwards: 10
Pragma Implementation-specific headers that may have various effects anywhere along the request-response chain. Pragma: no-cache
Proxy-Authorization Authorization credentials for connecting to a proxy. Proxy-Authorization: Basic QWxhZGRpbjpvcGVuIHNlc2FtZQ==
Range Request only part of an entity. Bytes are numbered from 0. Range: bytes=500-999
Referer[sic] This is the address of the previous web page from which a link to the currently requested page was followed. (The word “referrer” is misspelled in the RFC as well as in most implementations.) Referer: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page
TE The transfer encodings the user agent is willing to accept: the same values as for the response header Transfer-Encoding can be used, plus the “trailers” value (related to the “chunked” transfer method) to notify the server it accepts to receive additional headers (the trailers) after the last, zero-sized, chunk. TE: trailers, deflate
Upgrade Ask the server to upgrade to another protocol. Upgrade: HTTP/2.0, SHTTP/1.3, IRC/6.9, RTA/x11
User-Agent The user agent string of the user agent User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (compatible; MSIE 9.0; Windows NT 6.1; WOW64; Trident/5.0)
Via Informs the server of proxies through which the request was sent. Via: 1.0 fred, 1.1 nowhere.com (Apache/1.1)
Warning A general warning about possible problems with the entity body. Warning: 199 Miscellaneous warning

Responses

Field name↓ Description Example
Accept-Ranges What partial content range types this server supports Accept-Ranges: bytes
Age The age the object has been in a proxy cache in seconds Age: 12
Allow Valid actions for a specified resource. To be used for a 405 Method not allowed Allow: GET, HEAD
Cache-Control Tells all caching mechanisms from server to client whether they may cache this object. It is measured in seconds Cache-Control: max-age=3600
Connection Options that are desired for the connection[4] Connection: close
Content-Encoding The type of encoding used on the data. See HTTP compression. Content-Encoding: gzip
Content-Language The language the content is in Content-Language: da
Content-Length The length of the response body in octets (8-bit bytes) Content-Length: 348
Content-Location An alternate location for the returned data Content-Location: /index.htm
Content-MD5 Base64-encoded binary MD5 sum of the content of the response Content-MD5: Q2hlY2sgSW50ZWdyaXR5IQ==
Content-Disposition An opportunity to raise a “File Download” dialogue box for a known MIME type Content-Disposition: attachment; filename=fname.ext
Content-Range Where in a full body message this partial message belongs Content-Range: bytes 21010-47021/47022
Content-Type The mime type of this content Content-Type: text/html; charset=utf-8
Date The date and time that the message was sent Date: Tue, 15 Nov 1994 08:12:31 GMT
ETag An identifier for a specific version of a resource, often a message digest ETag: "737060cd8c284d8af7ad3082f209582d"
Expires Gives the date/time after which the response is considered stale Expires: Thu, 01 Dec 1994 16:00:00 GMT
Last-Modified The last modified date for the requested object, in RFC 2822 format Last-Modified: Tue, 15 Nov 1994 12:45:26 GMT
Link Used to express a typed relationship with another resource, where the relation type is defined by RFC 5988 Link: </feed>; rel="alternate"
Location Used in redirection, or when a new resource has been created. Location: http://www.w3.org/pub/WWW/People.html
P3P This header is supposed to set P3P policy, in the form ofP3P:CP="your_compact_policy". However, P3P did not take off,[5] most browsers have never fully implemented it, a lot of websites set this header with fake policy text, that was enough to fool browsers the existence of P3P policy and grant permissions for third party cookies. P3P: CP="This is not a P3P policy! See http://www.google.com/support/accounts/bin/answer.py?hl=en&answer=151657 for more info."
Pragma Implementation-specific headers that may have various effects anywhere along the request-response chain. Pragma: no-cache
Proxy-Authenticate Request authentication to access the proxy. Proxy-Authenticate: Basic
Refresh Used in redirection, or when a new resource has been created. This refresh redirects after 5 seconds. This is a proprietary, non-standard header extension introduced by Netscape and supported by most web browsers. Refresh: 5; url=http://www.w3.org/pub/WWW/People.html
Retry-After If an entity is temporarily unavailable, this instructs the client to try again after a specified period of time. Retry-After: 120
Server A name for the server Server: Apache/1.3.27 (Unix) (Red-Hat/Linux)
Set-Cookie an HTTP cookie Set-Cookie: UserID=JohnDoe; Max-Age=3600; Version=1
Strict-Transport-Security A HSTS Policy informing the HTTP client how long to cache the HTTPS only policy and whether this applies to subdomains. Strict-Transport-Security: max-age=16070400; includeSubDomains
Trailer The Trailer general field value indicates that the given set of header fields is present in the trailer of a message encoded with chunked transfer-coding. Trailer: Max-Forwards
Transfer-Encoding The form of encoding used to safely transfer the entity to the user.Currently defined methods are: chunked, compress, deflate, gzip, identity. Transfer-Encoding: chunked
Vary Tells downstream proxies how to match future request headers to decide whether the cached response can be used rather than requesting a fresh one from the origin server. Vary: *
Via Informs the client of proxies through which the response was sent. Via: 1.0 fred, 1.1 nowhere.com (Apache/1.1)
Warning A general warning about possible problems with the entity body. Warning: 199 Miscellaneous warning
WWW-Authenticate Indicates the authentication scheme that should be used to access the requested entity. WWW-Authenticate: Basic

Common non-standard request headers

Non-standard header fields are conventionally marked by prefixing the field name with X- .[6]

Field name↓ Description Example
X-Requested-With[7] mainly used to identify Ajax requests. Most JavaScript frameworks send this header with value of XMLHttpRequest X-Requested-With: XMLHttpRequest
X-Do-Not-Track[8] Requests a web application to disable their tracking of a user. Note that, as of yet, this is largely ignored by web applications. It does however open the door to future legislation requiring web applications to comply with a user’s request to not be tracked. Mozilla implements the DNT header with a similar purpose. X-Do-Not-Track: 1
DNT[9] Requests a web application to disable their tracking of a user. This is Mozilla’s version of the X-Do-Not-Track header (sinceFirefox 4.0 Beta 11). Safari and IE9 also have support for this header.[10] On March 7, 2011, a draft proposal was submitted to IETF.[11] DNT: 1

Common non-standard response headers

Non-standard header fields are conventionally marked by prefixing the field name with X- .

Field name↓ Description Example
X-Frame-Options[12] Clickjacking protection: “deny” – no rendering within a frame, “sameorigin” – no rendering if origin mismatch X-Frame-Options: deny
X-XSS-Protection[13] Cross-site scripting (XSS) filter X-XSS-Protection: 1; mode=block
X-Content-Type-Options[14] the only defined value, “nosniff”, prevents Internet Explorer from MIME-sniffing a response away from the declared content-type X-Content-Type-Options: nosniff
X-Forwarded-For[15] a de facto standard for identifying the originating IP address of a client connecting to a web server through an HTTP proxy or load balancer X-Forwarded-For: client1, proxy1, proxy2
X-Forwarded-Proto[16] a de facto standard for identifying the originating protocol of an HTTP request, since a reverse proxy (load balancer) communicates with a web server using HTTP X-Forwarded-Proto: https
X-Powered-By[17] specifies the technology (ASP.NET, PHP, JBoss, e.g.) supporting the web application (version details are often in X-RuntimeX-Version, or X-AspNet-Version) X-Powered-By: PHP/5.2.1

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retrieved from: wikipedia (website:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_HTTP_headers)

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Written by gomiski

2011/09/03 at 12:07 pm

Posted in General, Lecture

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